Hardy White Oleander is a multi-stemmed evergreen shrub with an upright spreading habit of growth. New varieties are hybridized and grown on the Moody Gardens grounds, encompassing every named variety.[20]. However, its bitterness renders it unpalatable to humans and most animals, so poisoning cases are rare and the general risk for human mortality is low. Leaves are usually in groups of three and narrowly lanceolate. [citation needed], Drugs derived from N. oleander have been investigated as a treatment for cancer, but have failed to demonstrate clinical utility. Cultivated plants rarely produce fruits. [46][47] According to the American Cancer Society, the trials conducted so far have produced no evidence of benefit, while they did cause adverse side effects. The flowers require insect visits to set seed, and seem to be pollinated through a deception mechanism. ... Caplan JP. From board-certified doctors and trusted medical professionals. The plant has a leaf like that of the almond, but smaller, and the flower is red like a rose. Blossom: In warm areas all-year, otherwise May to October 11. panicles in white or rose-coloured 12. Nerium grows to 2–6 m (7–20 ft) tall. Caterpillars of the polka-dot wasp moth (Syntomeida epilais) feed specifically on oleanders and survive by eating only the pulp surrounding the leaf-veins, avoiding the fibers. All fresh or dry parts of the plant are toxic. Snopes: Legend of Oleander-poisoning at Campfire. Nerium oleander, commonly called oleander, is an upright, rounded evergreen sub-tropical to tropical shrub that is valued for its abundant, fragrant, summer to fall flowers. The ancient Greeks had several names for the plant, including rhododaphne, nerion, rhododendron and rhodon. Plants may suffer damage or die back in such marginal climates during severe winter cold but will rebound from the roots. Medical problems caused by plants: Plant Toxins, Cardiac Glycosides. [57] Some variants tell of this happening to Napoleon's or Alexander the Great's soldiers. [17] There are estimated to be 25 million oleanders planted along highways and roadsides throughout the State of California. 5.0 out of 5 stars 7. Roots: Oleander has a root system which it uses for water and nutrient uptake. [32] Hardy versions like white, red and pink oleander will tolerate occasional light frost down to −10 °C (14 °F),[16] though the leaves may be damaged. It was first classified by Linnaeus, although some people dispute this. Prolonged contact with sap may cause skin irritation, eye inflamation and dermatitis. In cold winter climates, oleander is a popular summer potted plant readily available at most nurseries. Nerium oleander contains xylem and phloem, which aid in transportation in the plant. Description Oleander is a rapidly growing evergreen, rounded shrub or small tree native to Europe and Asia. Tough and vigorous, it produces abundant clusters of single or double flowers in shades of red, pink, white, cream, yellow or purple. [59][60][61] The flowers have sometimes been mis-translated as Oleander,[6] but Oleander flowers are nectarless and therefore cannot transmit any toxins via nectar. Oleander (flowers) Nerium oleander. The toxicity of oleander renders it deer-resistant and its large size makes for a good windbreak – as such it is frequently planted as a hedge along property lines and in agricultural settings. Among these compounds are oleandrin and oleandrigenin, known as cardiac glycosides, which are known to have a narrow therapeutic index and can be toxic when ingested. They therefore receive very few visits, as typical of many rewardless flower species. Nerium oleander is the only species currently classified in the genus Nerium. [15] Further medical attention may be required depending on the severity of the poisoning and symptoms. [30] Several dwarf cultivars have also been developed, offering a more compact form and size for small spaces. Answers (1)ASK A DOCTOR. [26] The actual flower referenced by Pliny was Azalea/Rhododendron, which is still used in Turkey to produce a hallucinogenic honey.[62]. A 2014 article in the medical journal Perspectives in Biology and Medicine posited that oleander was the substance used to induce hallucinations in the Pythia, the female priestess of Apollo, also known as the Oracle of Delphi in Ancient Greece. [6] ascribed to oleander's toxicity to humans. [18] The best method for preventing further spread of the disease is to prune infected oleanders to the ground immediately after the infection is noticed. [36] Other mammals, however, such as dogs and humans, are relatively sensitive to the effects of cardiac glycosides and the clinical manifestations of "glycoside intoxication". It is most commonly grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk. Nerium oleander is planted in many subtropical and tropical areas of the world. The word oleander appears as far back as the first century AD, when the Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides cited it as one of the terms used by the Romans for the plant. Oleander is a member of the Apocynaceae family, along with star jasmine and periwinkle. [42], Poisoning and reactions to oleander plants are evident quickly, requiring immediate medical care in suspected or known poisonings of both humans and animals. These plants are adaptable to a variety of soils, and they flourish in heat and full sun while also being drought-tolerant. Oleander (Nerium oleander) is a fragrant flowering evergreen shrub or small tree that is in bloom from spring through fall. Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine. The leaves are in pairs or whorls of three, thick and leathery, dark-green, narrow lanceolate, 5–21 cm (2.0–8.3 in) long and 1–3.5 cm (0.39–1.38 in) broad, and with an entire margin filled with minute reticulate venation web typical of eudicots. All parts of this plant are poisonous if ingested. Plant Family: Apocynads (Apocynoideae) 2. Hardy versions like white, red and pink oleander will tolerate occasional light frost down to −10 °C (14 °F), though the leaves may be damaged. Larvae of the common crow butterfly (Euploea core) and oleander hawk-moth (Daphnis nerii) also feed on oleanders, and they retain or modify toxins, making them unpalatable to potential predators such as birds, but not to other invertebrates such as spiders and wasps. For more information see: Problems Common to Many Indoor Plants. Huxley, A.; Griffiths, M.; Levy, M. The genera most closely-related thus include the equally ornamental (and equally toxic) Adenium G.Don and Strophanthus DC. Cuttings may be taken in late summer. $22.50$22.50. A native of southwestern Europe and East Asia, oleander can be found growing in sunny sites in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 to 11. Oleander is native to dry Mediterranean stream beds, and established plants will tolerate some drought and poor soils. Oleander is an evergreen ornamental shrub or small tree with long, narrow, dark … [15] Cardiac reactions consist of irregular heart rate, sometimes characterized by a racing heart at first that then slows to below normal further along in the reaction. For this reason gardeners are advised to prune mature shrubs in the autumn to shape and induce lush new growth and flowering for the following spring. Remove and destroy any leaves damaged by leaf spot. It holds up well as a street planting. It grows to heights between 6.5' and 19.5' tall and 6' to 10' wide. Despite this malevolent undertone, though, the oleander flower actually has some deep symbolism. The fruit is a long narrow pair of follicles, which splits open at maturity to release numerous downy seeds. Some invertebrates are known to be unaffected by oleander toxins, and feed on the plants. The flowers form in large clusters and come in shades of white, yellow, pink, and red. All fresh or dry parts of the plant are toxic. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). Shmida, A., Ivri, Y., and Cohen, D. The enigma of the oleander. For the multi-level marketing firm Nerium International, see, Other species in tribe Nerieae: Oleander's closest relatives within Apocynaceae. Container plant for sunny decks, patios and other locations around the home. A bacterial disease known as oleander leaf scorch has become an extremely serious threat to the shrub since it was first noticed in Palm Springs, California, in 1992. Promptly deadhead spent blooms to prevent formation of non-ornamental seed pods. Sometimes also commonly called rosebay.Genus name comes from the classical Greek name.Specific epithet comes from the Italian oleandro for its olive-like leaves. Many of the oleander relatives, such as the desert rose (Adenium obesum) found in East Africa, have similar leaves and flowers and are equally toxic. Genus Nerium are evergreen shrubs with linear or narrowly oblong leaves and terminal clusters of salver- or funnel-shaped flowers, followed by long, bean-like seed-pods Details N. oleander is an evergreen shrub with narrowly lance-shaped grey-green leaves and terminal clusters of salver-shaped, pink, white or red flowers 3-4cm across, in summer Oleander is native to Africa, Europe, North America, and the Mediterranean.Butler 2016 Oleander should not be confused with yellow oleander (Thevetia neriifolia), a related toxic plant.Jamal 2… Oleander plants (Nerium oleander) are among the most versatile of shrubs, with dozens of uses in southern and coastal landscapes. They are often, but not always, sweet-scented. Symptoms of leaf scorch infection may be slow to manifest themselves, but it becomes evident when parts of otherwise healthy oleanders begin to yellow and wither, as if scorched by heat or fire. [citation needed]. Purple, pink or white five-petaled funnel-shaped flowers in clusters (terminal cymes). Nerium obesum) single flower, Adenium obesum var. An extract of oleander contains naturally occurring phytochemicals (plant produced compounds) that have been removed from the structural material of the leaves of the plant. Xylem primarily transports water and other nutrients from the soil and phloem primarily transports sugars. It grows to between 2 and 5 m in height and has long, narrow leaves almost 13 to 30 cm in length and typically grouped in threes around the stem. Extremities may become pale and cold due to poor or irregular circulation. Oleander is a large, glabrous, ornamental evergreen shrub with a milky juice. Leaves are light green and very glossy when young, before maturing to a dull dark green. In the past, scented plants were sometimes treated as the distinct species, Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands, "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, entry for, Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg, and D. J. Middleton. It is most commonly grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk. The origins of the taxonomic name Nerium oleander, first assigned by Linnaeus in 1753, are disputed. Tough and vigorous, Nerium oleander 'Hardy Red' (Oleander) is noted for its ability to withstand cold temperatures better than other Oleanders. Isadore Dyer' Large clusters of large fragrant soft rosy pink double flowers, often with one or more petals streaked or flecked with white, are born over a long period on this reliable old favorite. Get to Know Oleander [26][27] Fears of honey contamination with toxic oleander nectar are therefore unsubstantiated. [40] A spokesman for the Los Angeles County Coroner's office stated that it was the first instance of death connected to oleander in the county, and a toxicologist from the California Poison Control Center said it was the first instance of death he had seen recorded. Winter hardy to USDA Zones 8-10. In some protected areas mature plants may reach up to 20 feet tall. It is most commonly grown in its natural shrub form, but can be trained into a small tree with a single trunk. This plant is a shrub or small tree in the dogbane family. Virginia Commonwealth University. As such it can be difficult to identify at first because gardeners may mistake the symptoms for those of drought stress or nutrient deficiency.[31]. Oleander has historically been considered a poisonous plant because some of its compounds may exhibit toxicity, especially to animals, when consumed in large amounts. Common Name: Evergreen Oleander 6. altogether ca. It's native to northern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. [30] Propagation can be made from cuttings, where they can readily root after being placed in water or in rich organic potting material, like compost. Each flower has five petals that spread out like the blades of a fan. [10]The three remaining genera Alafia Thouars, Farquharia Stapf and Isonema R.Br. Plants generally grow best when overwintering period is short. Oleander is a vigorous grower in warm subtropical regions, where it is extensively used as an ornamental plant in parks, along roadsides and in private gardens. [28] The disease has since decimated hundreds of thousands of shrubs mainly in Southern California, but also on a smaller scale in Arizona, Nevada and Texas. Watch for mealybugs, aphids and scale. The gastrointestinal effects can consist of nausea and vomiting, excess salivation, abdominal pain, diarrhea that may contain blood, and especially in horses, colic. Double flowered cultivars like 'Mrs Isadore Dyer' (deep pink), 'Mathilde Ferrier' (yellow) or 'Mont Blanc' (white) are enjoyed for their large, rose-like blooms and strong fragrance. For the underworld in Babylonian mythology, see, "Oleander" redirects here. Overwinter in a cool location (40s F.) with moderate light and very little water or as a houseplant in a bright sunny but cool room with reduced water. - both of which contain (like Oleander) potent cardiac glycosides that have led to their use as arrow poisons in Africa. (1992). Oleander is a vigorous grower in warm subtropical regions, where it is extensively used as an ornamental plantin parks, along roadsides and in private gardens. Retrieved on 2018-03-26. International Oleander Society: Information on Oleander toxicity. Herbaria of oleander varieties are compiled and held at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. and at Moody Gardens in Galveston, Texas. Plant saps can cause allergic skin reactions in some people. Container plants may be grown as shrubs or trained as ornamental standards. Desai, Umesh R. Cardiac glycosides. [18] Because of its durability, oleander was planted prolifically on Galveston Island in Texas after the disastrous Hurricane of 1900. A digitoxin-like cardiac glycoside, oleandrin, is responsible for this plant’s toxicity. It is in leaf all year, in flower from June to October. Most cultivars will grow to 8 to 12 feet tall and almost as wide. In fact, because of its hardiness, the plant is considered invasive in certain parts of the Southwest and around the Gulf Coast. [36][37][38], In reviewing oleander toxicity cases seen in-hospital, Lanford and Boor[39] concluded that, except for children who might be at greater risk, "the human mortality associated with oleander ingestion is generally very low, even in cases of moderate intentional consumption (suicide attempts). The scientific name for oleander in Nerium oleander. Retrieved on 2009-07-27. [2] The genus name Nerium is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek name for the plant nẽrion (νήριον), which is in turn derived from the Greek for water, nẽros (νηρός), because of the natural habitat of the oleander along rivers and streams. Oleander, Nerium, bears single or double flowers in various shade of white, yellow, pink, red, or purple from mid-spring to late summer. MOST RECENT. It is tolerant to both drought and inundation, but not to prolonged frost. Its use as a poison is well known. Widely cultivated as an ornamental shrub or as an informal hedge in warm climate areas, Nerium oleander is a beautiful medium-sized evergreen shrub. Oleander (Nerieae) 3. Nerium oleander is an evergreen Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a fast rate. Their action is derived from inhibition of the plasmalemma (cell membrane) Na + /K + -ATPase. Over 400 cultivars have been named, with several additional flower colors not found in wild plants having been selected, including yellow, peach and salmon. They require frequent heavy watering and fertilizing as compared to being planted in the ground, but oleander is nonetheless an ideal flowering shrub for patios and other spaces with hot sunshine. ", "History - International Oleander Society", "Paris côté jardin Archives de mots clés Laurier Rose", "Jardin: Prolongez vous vos vacances en plantant in laurier-rose", "Shedding Light on Growing Oleanders Indoors", "Blooming Oleanders of the American Collection", "Gardening : Nerium oleander : Petite oleanders: Evergreen drought-tolerant dwarf shrubs with showy flowers", "Effects of inotropic and arrhythmogenic digoxin doses and of digoxin-specific antibody on myocardial monovalent cation transport in the dog", "2 Toddlers Died from Oleander Poisoning, Coroner Says", "Dozens of horses poisoned at California farm", "A Bittersweet Story: The True Nature of the Laurel of the Oracle of Delphi", "Gustav Klimt, Two Girls With An Oleander". Hardy to U.S. … Here’s what you need to know. [34] The solid whites, reds and a variety of pinks are the most common. This is a high maintenance shrub that will require regular care and upkeep, and can be pruned at anytime. In his book Enquiries into Plants of circa 300 BC, Theophrastus described (among plants that affect the mind) a shrub he called onotheras, which modern editors render oleander; "the root of onotheras [oleander] administered in wine", he alleges, "makes the temper gentler and more cheerful". Many cultivars, like 'Hawaii' or 'Turner's Carnival', are multi-colored, with brilliant striped corollas. This inhibits the circulation of water in the tissue of the plant, causing individual branches to die until the entire plant is consumed. Kind: Oleander (Nerium oleander) 4. only kind of the plant genus Nerium 5. The Egyptians apparently called it scinphe, the North Africans rhodedaphane, and the Lucanians (a southern Italic people) icmane. [48], Nerium oleander has a history of cultivation going back millennia, especially amongst the great ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean Basin. are less well-known in cultivation. Origin: Mediterranean area, Mid East and China 8. evergreen, woody plant 9. The Garden wouldn't be the Garden without our Members, Donors and Volunteers. It is so widely cultivated that no precise region of origin has been identified, though it is usually associated with the Mediterranean Basin. Poisonous plant reactions in some protected areas mature plants may reach up to 10 ' wide pacing will required. As an ornamental shrub may reach up to 10 ' wide the Italian oleandro for showy! '' ( Daphne agria ), one of the plant, consisting of the plant are.. It produces fragrant, which aid in transportation in the dogbane family ), Theophrastus appears to intend the shrub., ideally into an unheated greenhouse or basement where they can be grown in the dogbane family,! Vomiting and gastric lavage are protective measures to reduce absorption of the but. Activated charcoal may also be quite toxic all year, in flower from June October! 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