Onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance. To be gone on smb = to be violently in love  with. Copyright: © 2019 Clarke, Grieve. In particular, based on our stylistic analysis of the language of the Trump Twitter account, we propose four hypotheses about how Trump and his team were able to use Twitter effectively during the candidacy. Engagement did, however, rise briefly after Steve Bannon joined the campaign, as illustrated in example 21: But this somewhat more engaged style did not last long. There is considerable variability in the length of Trump’s tweets, with an interquartile range of 12 to 22 words before the Twitter length increase and 22 to 45 words after the length increase. The degree of criticalness remained very high until after the 2012 election, at which point it gradually fell once again, never returning to these levels. 3. The dataset and R code we used to conduct the MCA is included in the Supporting Materials (see S3 File). These features were originally selected based on a survey of previous research in usage-based linguistics [35], which identified a wide range of grammatical features in the English language whose relative frequencies in texts reflect their communicative function. Imagery automatically calls up expressiveness. First, we see a strong gradual rise in the autumn of 2015, as Trump emerged as a front runner. For example, previous research has identified a series of dimensions of stylistic variation based on a factor analysis of the relative frequencies of a large set of grammatical features in a corpus representing a range of written and spoken genres [35]. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Visual imagery – represented by a picture, by some figure or affective/emotional imagery represented by ling. Marilyn. only for the '&'-glyph? Who doesn't love being #1? 16. Alternatively, every word that does not occur in that tweet will have a relative frequency of 0, even though many of those words would occur in a larger sample, often relatively frequently. Is the Subject Area "Twitter" applicable to this article? In this article we propose a stylistic analysis of texts written across two different periods, which differ not only temporally, but politically and culturally: communism and democracy in Romania. Our analysis is based on these adjusted time stamps; we did not attempt to make further adjustments, for example when Trump travelled, especially because many of his tweets are not associated with location information. Alternatively, he is especially unlikely to tweet from about 05:00 to 10:00, when he presumably tends to be asleep. Notably, the fact that social media management tools like TweetDeck account for such a small percentage of posts implies that Trump and his team usually tweeted in real time as opposed to scheduling posts ahead of time. Next, he talks about the Commonwealth Games Federation, the most famous organization of the Commonwealth. 2. Third, Trump and his team appear to have countered critical coverage of the campaign by disengaging from other viewpoints, focusing instead on using social media to express opinions, attack opponents, and promote the campaign. This file contains the 100 tweets with the highest and lowest coordinates on each of the five dimension, as well as coordinates for the full set of tweets in the corpus scored on the five dimensions. URLs are also used frequently in these tweets, usually to engage directly with external web content. Stylistic devices of simile and hyperbole. I’m Eleanor Grey. unplanned telephone conversations) generally encourage the use of more interactive features, while forms of carefully edited writing (e.g. In Britain, USA and some other countries – stylistics is the study of styles in literary (fictional, belles-letters) texts - художественные тексты. Further, if we assume that t… It remained relatively stable ever since, although it fell briefly when Bannon took over, only to return after the Access Hollywood tape was released, mirroring Dimension 4. This file contains the full dataset, R code, and output for the quantitative analysis conducted for this study. anal. Book Editor(s): J. K. Chambers. 18-21). English common core: stylistically neutral, short words, have antonyms). Furthermore, these tweets tend to contain other features that have been found in previous MDA studies to be common in informal communication, including auxiliary do, analytic negation, and predicative adjectives [35]. and it intersects other areas of linguistics and other disciplines: - sociolinguistics – St-cs is part of sociolinguistics as it doesn’t exist without a social situation; social l-ge varieties, - cognitive linguistics - appeared quite recently– relates linguistic units to our mind, relates stylistic factors in any lang. The rows of this heatmap have been ordered using a hierarchical cluster analysis (complete-linkage clustering) based on the four sets of dimension scores, as reflected in the dendrogram reproduced on the left-hand side of the figure. Overall, variation over time on this dimension therefore appears to reflect variation in Trump’s intended audience: when he is promoting his brand to the general population or appealing to the general electorate he employs a more formal and expository style, but when he is speaking to his political base he employs a more informal and conversational style. Yes Variation. - Mind the difference between dialoguing and monologuing. It is also notable that example 19 exhibits a campaigning style (D3: 0.103). Antonomasia and oxymoron as stylistic devices. The notion of style 3. Because the aim of our study was to identify patterns of stylistic variation on the Trump Twitter account, we removed all retweets (11,303), leaving 21,739 tweets in our corpus, totalling 362,653 word tokens. How should MAHs use the revised Variation sGuideline ? His degree of engagement shows an especially strong fall immediately after he declared, reflecting a steady stream of tweets categorically asserting the inevitable success of his campaign. A red cell indicates that a feature is associated with the positive pole of a dimension, and a blue cell indicates that it is associated with the negative pole. 1 So discussing how to code for them uniformly in archived sociolinguistic corpora is somewhat premature. Imagery –.figurative use of language units. The account was most active in February 2013: Trump was criticising president Obama, who had just begun his second term, as well as the talk show host Bill Maher, against whom he had filed a lawsuit, while also promoting the World Golf Championships, hosted at the Trump National Doral Miami, and the upcoming 13th season of All-Star Celebrity Apprentice. View Stylistic Variation Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. -          How about your Russian after the holiday? stylistic variation come into existence, such as e-mails, a now widely used genre that seems to blur the tradi-tional distinction between spoken and written lan- guage. Twitter was an integral part of Donald Trump’s communication platform during his 2016 campaign. In fact, we see one especially clear yet unexplained inflection point across multiple dimensions around 2015-02-03, not long before Trump formed his exploratory committee. In addition to general analyses of the Trump Twitter account, the authorship of these tweets has also been examined to determine the extent to which Trump writes his own tweets [28–30]. 14. Our goal here is only to simplify the interpretation of the dimensions and to highlight linguistic features that tend to occur together across the 4 dimensions. Before describing the patterns of stylistic variation exhibited by this dataset, it is important to consider variation in activity on the account more generally to ground our linguistic analysis. The overarching questions that motivate this workshop are: 1. The first has to do with questions about the reliability of data on . For example, we know in general that English-language texts written in a more informal style tend to be characterised by relatively frequent use of contractions, interjections, and pronouns, whereas texts written in a more formal style tend to be characterised by relatively infrequent use of these features and relatively frequent use of nouns, prepositions, and determiners [35]. Lexical and syntactical features of poetry. Aesthetic function is typical for art or all arts. Answer. Get your answers by asking now. This study examines stylistic variation patterns in L1 and L2 Chinese, focusing on two linguistic structures: morphosyntactic particle DE and subject pronoun. Language Variation. These tweets, however, are not simply mini-narratives: they often describe events, but crucially they tend to provide a critical assessment of the actions of the actors involved. Although these tweets tend to be far less interactive, they often contain non-initial mentions, which are generally used by Trump and his team to provide extra information about the people he is referring to, as opposed to interacting with them directly. Additional dimensions could be analysed in future research, but we chose to focus on these five dimensions because they are the strongest patterns identified by the analysis and because they are readily interpretable compared to later dimensions. In this study, we present the first detailed description of stylistic variation on the Trump Twitter account based on a multivariate analysis of grammatical co-occurrence patterns in tweets posted between 2009 and 2018. Overall, Dimension 4 therefore represents an opposition between an engaged or heteroglossic style, where Trump is acknowledging the viewpoints of others, and a disengaged or monoglossic style, where he is expressing his opinions as if they are statements of fact. Yes In this study, we analyse stylistic variation in the Trump Twitter corpus by employing a new form of MDA for short texts [54–57]. For example, at the top of this heatmap, we can see that a number of verbal forms tend to pattern together, being relatively common in conversational and engaged tweets, but relatively uncommon in campaigning and advisory tweets. units. We also tracked how the tweets in the corpus varied over time across these four dimensions, to see how the style of the account changed. Variation which used to be described as 'free' has lately been described as fitting within identifiable linguistic and/or social parameters. After the Access Hollywood tape was released, Trump increasingly adopted a more disengaged style, as in example 22, which was singled out by the media as being “almost-wilfully ignorant” [78]: Furthermore, Trump’s tweets became even more disengaged since he was elected, with engagement reaching its lowest levels at the end of the period covered by this study. Still have questions? Writing – original draft, Each dimension consists of a positive pole and a negative pole, where each pole is associated with a set of co-occurring grammatical features that tend to be in complementary distribution with each other–i.e. As for empirical approaches to style, new corpora make it possible to address questions of style not possible before. Based on these results, we propose a series of hypotheses about how the Trump campaign used social media during the 2016 elections. As the final season of the Apprentice was drawing to a close, Trump’s tweets became much more conversational and much less engaged. Stylistic function may be achieved by connotations of different word forms and syntactical patterns , expressed verbally or implicit. Stylistic variation means altering your vocabulary, syntactic structures, discourse structure to match the context and situation. The same may happen with vulgar and jargon words. Project administration, SD is a developed structure, a model which leads a double life; a creative conceptual blend which involves a mode of thought (conceptual mapping – отображение, метафорический перенос) and individual linguistic expression bringing about a semantic of structural intensification of the utterance. Addressing the issue of expr. • Style in Fiction • A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry. One is constant. Style has been an object of study from ancient times. component in its mng if it intensifies what is named by the word through imagery or any other way. Irradiation from the point of view of stylistic irradiation is one of 2 high-flown words in the neutral back-ground (context) may spread their colouring to the whole of discourse. In many ways, Twitter was Donald Trump’s primary communication platform during the 2016 Republican primaries and presidential campaign. In hindsight, it seems Trump had decided to run by this date at the latest, and that this decision was echoed by a shift in his tone on Twitter, especially by a rise in self-promotional discourse. For instance, examples 7 and 8 have very strong negative coordinates on Dimension 2 and are written in a more formal and expository style, at least for Twitter: The features most strongly associated with these tweets are almost all linked by a more formal style–more informationally dense, composed of complex noun phrases, which generally require careful planning by the author [35]. Change over time in the use of this style of communication therefore appears to be closely related to the intensity of Trump’s presidential campaign. We used a 60-day moving average to facilitate the identification of broad trends in the dataset; other windows gave similar results, although clear trends could have been obscured by taking very large windows. Although the content of Trump’s Tweets has garnered considerable attention, the analysis of the style of Trump’s tweets–their form as opposed to their meaning–has been far more limited and has tended to focus on relatively superficial features, such as misspellings [25], insults [26–27], and non-standard grammar [28]. Jack Grieve, Roles So, inflation soars only if a severe depression will occur. - the term is borrowed from art criticism where it stands for psychological effect. is part of pragmatics; styl. 2 Architecture and Domain We aim to with generating restaurant recommen- dations as part of an interactive system. Visualization, 1-42. This accumulation results in a purposeful redundancy (Избыточность). Both styles are essentially interactive and outward looking: one is giving general advice to his audience, whereas the other is critiquing individual people for past and current actions. To focus our analysis on the identification of robust patterns of stylistic variation, we removed all features that occurred in less than five percent of tweets [59], reducing our dataset to 63 linguistic features. Tweets posted on the @realDonaldTrump account originate from a range of sources, with the Twitter Web Client (11,252 tweets, accounting for 52% of the tweets in corpus), Android (4,659, 21%), and iPhone (4,224, 19%) being most common, together accounting for 93% of the tweets in the corpus. Search for more papers by this author. Yes Stylistic variation involves alternation between, for example, casual and formal styles of speech used by an individual speaker, ... questions surrounding … Understanding this social media strategy is an important part of understanding the Trump campaign–and more generally of understanding how to successfully run or for that matter how to successfully oppose political campaigns online, which are becoming a crucial part of modern politics. Hopefully I have fulfilled the aims and objectives of this project in detail. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Although this style was relatively uncommon for almost four years before Trump declared, it was used in some of his earlier tweets, when he was primarily using Twitter to promote his brand, as illustrated in examples 15 and 16. Finally, this study has demonstrated how a detailed and objective linguistic analysis can be used to better understand important societal issues. 25, 26. It facilitates the recall of any text or any speech because they produce many associations. This general form of discourse appears to be one with which Trump was familiar long before he ran for president and one that he used as a basis for his campaigning style. For instance, examples 17 and 18 have very strong positive coordinates on Dimension 4 and are directly engaging with other people and their perspectives: The features most strongly associated with these tweets include WH-words and question marks, which are used in these tweets to ask questions–not only to interact with users and to seek their opinions, but as a way to reflexively recognise the viewpoint of others and suggest new ways of thinking. moves investigation of disc. Stylistics as a linguistic discipline 2. Written English - More formal - Full forms - The norm is observed, except e-mail letters. Rethinking context: an introduction. The structure of his speech is not really expressive but also not very important for that what he wants to say. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to stylistic variation in linguistic description. His more informal style returned in force only after the Access Hollywood tape was released, which risked derailing his campaign in its final month. Allusion and decompozition of set phrase. English writers can coin individual neologisms which function as expressive means ..... - Traditional grammar is not observed, simple tense forms are preferable. Methodology, In addition, these tweets often contain features such as predicative adjectives, copula be, superlatives, private verbs, perception verbs, and modals of possibility, all of which tend to be used to qualify the advice being provided. The complete corpus is included in the Supporting Materials (see S1 File). Second, we considered the individual linguistic features most strongly associated with each pole of the dimension, based on the coordinates and contributions for each feature for that dimension. In addition, the 100 tweets most strongly associated with each pole of each dimension are included in the Supporting Materials (see S4 File). In this article we propose a stylistic analysis of texts written across two different periods, which differ not only temporally, but politically and culturally: communism and democracy in Romania. These tweets also tend to contain various types of pronouns, which are generally associated with interactive discourse [35], including second person pronouns, which are often used to interact with other accounts. To what extent it is possible or desirable to go beyond superficial, uninterpretable, task-specific stylistic features to deeper, broader, more systematic, and more psychologically-plausible conceptualizations of stylistic variation. I. V. Arnold points out the following properties of stylistic function: 1. Lv 7. In general, Trump tweets the most between around 12:00 and 22:00, with primary spikes in usage around 16:00 and 20:00. The notion of stylistic function 9. Tweets from mobile devices tend to follow a similar pattern, although they are more likely to be used late at night and before noon, especially from Android devices, which were especially common during the campaign. The results of the MCA, including the contributions and coordinates for all features and all texts across the five dimensions, as well as the amount of variance explained by the complete model and the individual dimensions, are included in the Supporting Materials (see S3 File). 3 years ago. These two tweets also contain many of the most indicative features of this unengaged style: attributive and predicative adjectives and the copula tend to be used by Trump to describe subjects in absolute terms with maximum authorial investment, without entertaining the possibility of alternative descriptions or viewpoints, while amplifiers, superlatives, interjections, capitals, and exclamation marks tend to be used to emphasise the certainty of the point being made, contributing to a hyperbolic and uncompromising style. The first dimension returned by the MCA is primarily associated with variation in tweet length. We then track how the use of these four styles changed over time, focusing on the period around the campaign, showing that the style of tweets shifts systematically depending on the communicative goals of Trump and his team. Just look for the keywords, and outspoken style compared to his competitors in the.. 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